UML Modelling: Activity Diagram

UML is a Unified modeling language. This UML language consists of a number of several types of diagrams. On this article we’re discussing about exercise diagram.


In its basic type, an exercise diagram is a simple and intuitive rationalization of what occurs in a piece stream, what actions will be accomplished in parallel, and whether or not there are different paths via the work stream. These diagrams as outlined within the Unified Modeling Language [UML1.3] are derived from quite a lot of methods to visually illustrate work flows. A lot of the premise for the definition of the these diagram data is present in [Martin & Odell].

We are able to use exercise diagrams to visualise the work stream of a enterprise use case. An absolute work stream rationalization can have a fundamental stream, and one or a number of different flows. This work stream has a construction that we will describe textually, utilizing casual if, if-then-else, or a do-until statements of various varieties. For a easy work stream with a easy construction such textual definitions could also be reasonably enough, however within the

case of extra composite buildings, these diagrams help to light up and create extra noticeable what the work stream is. Traditionally, these diagramming methods have sometimes been used within the enterprise course of modeling area, however you should use it within the system modeling area too.

Historical past:

In June 2003, The Rational Edge launched a brand new article sequence by Donald Bell, IBM World Providers, referred to as UML fundamentals. The explanation of this sequence is to assist readers turn into aware of the foremost diagrams that create a lot of the UML. Half I supplied a common overview of those diagrams; this month, we proceed the sequence with an in depth take a look at the this diagram, counting this diagram’s full UML v1.4 notation set.

The exercise diagram’s goal

The aim of the this diagram is to signify the technical stream of occasions which can be half of a bigger exercise. In initiatives wherein use instances are current, these diagrams can mannequin a exact use case at a extra complete degree. Nonetheless, these diagrams can be utilized independently of use instances for modeling a business-level perform, similar to shopping for a live performance ticket or registering for a school class. Exercise diagrams can be used to mannequin system-level features, similar to how a ticket reservation knowledge mart populates a company gross sales system’s knowledge warehouse. Because it fashions procedural stream, the exercise diagram focuses on the motion sequence of execution and the conditions that activate or guard these actions. This diagram can also be targeted solely on the exercise’s inside actions and never on the actions that decision the exercise of their course of stream or that set off the exercise in accordance with some occasion.

Though UML sequence diagrams can depict the identical data as exercise diagrams, I personally discover these diagrams glorious for modeling business-level features. It’s because these diagrams show all attainable sequence flows in an exercise, whereas a sequence diagram sometimes illustrates just one stream of an exercise. As well as, enterprise managers and enterprise course of workforce appear to favor these diagrams greater than sequence diagrams — an exercise diagram is much less “techie” in look, and due to this fact much less threatening to enterprise folks. Furthermore, enterprise managers are used to seeing stream diagrams, so the “look” of an exercise diagram is acquainted.

When to Use: Exercise Diagrams

These diagrams must be utilized in mixture with different modeling methods similar to interplay diagrams and state diagrams. The important thing motivation to make the most of these diagrams is to mannequin the work stream behind the system being deliberate.

Exercise Diagrams are additionally helpful for:

  1. Analyzing a use case by describing what actions require occurring and when they need to come up.
  2. Describing a sophisticated sequential algorithm.
  3. Modeling functions with parallel processes.

Nonetheless, exercise diagrams mustn’t take the place of interplay diagrams and state diagrams. these diagrams don’t give element about how objects behave or how objects collaborate.


Exercise diagrams are graphical demonstrations of labor flows of step clever actions and actions with preserve for choice, iteration and concurrency. Within the Unified Modeling Language, these diagrams can be utilized to painting the enterprise and operational step-by-step work flows of mechanisms in a system. On this diagram it illustrates the generally stream of management.

Exercise diagrams specific the work stream efficiency of a system. These diagrams are parallel to state diagrams as a result of actions are the state of doing one thing. The diagrams describe the state of actions by presenting the sequence of actions executed. These diagrams can verify actions which can be conditional or parallel.


Exercise diagrams are constructed from a restricted variety of shapes, linked with arrows. Probably the most vital form varieties:

  • Rounded Rectangles correspond to Actions;
  • Diamonds symbolize Selections;
  • Bars signify the beginning (cut up) or finish (be part of) of concurrent actions;
  • Black circle stands for the beginning (preliminary state) of the work stream;
  • Encircled black circle signifies the top (remaining state).
  • Arrows run from the beginning in direction of the top and signify the order wherein actions occur.

Subsequently, all these shapes will be thought of as a type of flowchart. Standard flowchart strategies are in need of constructs for expressing concurrency. Nonetheless, the be part of and cut up symbols on this diagrams solely decide this for simple instances. The sense of the illustration isn’t comprehensible when they’re randomly mixed with choices or iterations.

Description, which means, and sequence of the fundamental notations:

  • Preliminary node:
    The crammed in circle is the place to begin of the diagram. An preliminary node is not vital though it does make it drastically simpler to learn the diagram.

  • Exercise remaining node:
    The crammed circle with a border is the ending level. An exercise diagram can have zero or extra exercise remaining nodes.

  • Exercise:
    The rounded rectangles signify actions that happen. An exercise could also be bodily, similar to Examine Kinds, or digital, similar to Show Create Scholar Display screen.

  • Circulate/edge or arrows on the diagram:
    Though there’s a delicate distinction between flows and edges I’ve by no means seen a sensible goal for the distinction though I’ve little doubt one exists. I am going to use the time period stream.

  • Fork:
    There’s a black bar with one stream going into it and several other leaving it. This denotes the start of parallel exercise.

  • Be part of:
    There’s a black bar with a number of flows coming into it and one leaving it. All flows going into the be part of should attain it earlier than processing might proceed. This denotes the top of parallel processing.

  • Situation:
    Within the diagram, there’s a textual content similar to [Incorrect Form] on a stream, defining a guard which should consider to true to be able to traverse the node.

  • Choice:
    There’s a diamond with one stream coming into and several other leaving. The flows leaving embrace situations though some modelers won’t point out the situations whether it is apparent.

  • Merge:
    There’s a diamond form with a number of flows coming into and one leaving. The implication is that a number of incoming flows should attain this level till processing continues, based mostly on any guards on the outgoing stream.

  • Partition:
    That is organized into three partitions, additionally referred to as swimlanes, indicating who/what’s performing the actions (Applicant, Registrar, or System).

  • Sub-activity indicator:
    The rake within the backside nook of an exercise, similar to within the Apply to College exercise, signifies that the exercise is described by a extra finely detailed exercise diagram.

  • Circulate remaining:
    If there’s the circle with the X via it referred to as stream remaining. This means that the method stops at this level.

Similar Posts

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.